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State with examples from real life and explain the functions of logistics with the help of those examples. Explain concept of warehouse and examine its functions. What is a multimodal transport system?
Explain its advantages. Describe the intermodal relationships in multimodal transport system. Explain various types of Warehouses. Distinguish between Inbound and Outbound Logistics. Raw teakwood is to be exported from Malaysia to India in bulk.
Which mode of transport would you recommend? What are the advantages and disadvantages of such a mode? Discuss the importance of International movements in Indian economy.
Develop a net work route connecting at least 8 nodes with hypothetical time between various nodes and find out the shortest route What is the need for route management in transportation? What are the basic costs in transportation? Consider any mode of transportation of your choice and apply hub-spoke model. Develop a supply chain considering any product of your choice. Explain any three principles of good routing system. Examine the features of multimodal transport system. Discuss about any two types of intermodal movements.
What are the market related factors that influence transport costs? Distinguish between private and public warehouses. The following are monthly costs incurred by Transport Company. Identify the basic costs of transportation. Rent of container Rs. Indian Oil Company wish supply LP gas to its customers for cooking purpose at cheaper rate by minimizing its transport costs?
What is best means of transport? Examine the need for inventory management. Describe the components of supply chain management. Explain the impact of cold chain, considering geographical perspective. Raw material inventories are indirect inventories. Airlines are variable cost carriers. Pipe-lines are variable cost carriers. Intermodal transport system maximises costs and minimises revenue.
Alliance of international industries increase in working costs. Balancing inventory reconciles supply availability with demand. Match the following left hand side words with appropriate words from right hand side and appropriate alphabet in the braces Stow away a Incorporates weight and space considerations Density b Cost which does not change with the services or volume Variable cost c product dimensions and impact of the same on vehicle space utilization Fixed cost d cost which changes with the services or volume Answers: Section — A Q.
Logistics is the management of the flow of resources between the point of origin and the point of destination in order to meet some requirements, for example, customers or corporations. The resources managed in logistics can include physical items such as food, materials, equipment, liquids, and staff, as well as abstract items such as information, particles and energy. The term logistics comes from the late 19th century: from French logistique, from loger ‘to lodge’.
Logistics is considered to have originated in the military’s need to supply itself with arms, ammunition, and rations as it moved from a base to a forward position. In the ancient Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Empires, military officers with the title Logistikas were responsible for financial and supply distribution matters. Logistic Functions: Business logistics is a series of separate activities or functions which all fall under a business firm’s logistics umbrella they are as follows: i.
Supply: Consider the supply of materials that you have as this would help meet your self- imposed quota for the company to profit. Transportation: This is where logistics management applies. A company should have the transportation services needed to move the products and deliver them in a timely and efficient manner to the customers. Facilities: Different companies employ different services according to their needs.
Each of them has a different facility which helps produce the products and services which they eventually offer to customers. These facilities should be tailor-made and fit the client’s and customer’s specifications. Services: From customer service to delivering an order on time, to resolving order-related problems, a company should employ a logistics management service provider which will provide all of these services.
Management and Administration: This is an aspect of logistics management which is common to all organizations. A well balanced and knowledgeable staff and leaders make for a better service-oriented company. In relation to this, here are the important factors that you should consider when employing a logistics management service provider that will best benefit your company.
Inbound Transportation: You should choose a logistics management service provider who will give out quotes for the inbound transportation costs of components.
This might include the delivery of individual components to your production line. For a better price comparison, you may also ask if they can deal with clients who buy some or all of their components from a particular supplier. You can look for cost and time frame quotations that you can use to consider the service provider that is most cost-effective vii.
Outbound Transportation: Outbound transportation refers to the carriers which meet the customer’s needs. Different clients need various freight and carrier services and a logistics management service provider should be able to provide these individual needs.
The deal can either be on an over-all operational basis, or on a per-shipment basis. This provides a comprehensive solution for a company’s primary need for logistics. Choose a logistics management service provider, who will provide rate comparisons from different couriers to meet and handle the customer’s goals. The main point here is that you need to have somebody to handle and ship out your main products in a safe and timely manner.
If a customer has a specific shipping need, would they be able to deliver and solve the problem? Should a serious delivery or shipping problem arise, they should be able to troubleshoot and come up with the perfect solution and at the same time soothe a customer’s ruffled feathers. Keeping Customers Informed: The customers have the right to know the details about a particular order shipment. They should be informed of when the products were shipped, how it was shipped and who shipped it.
Some logistics management service provider gives out their contact numbers directly to their client’s customers. This would avoid a pointing of fingers should problems arise.
Also, there is online tracking information available for most couriers and carriers. All in all, you have to choose a logistics management service provider that would fit your company’s needs so that both of you will reap the benefits in the end.
Logistics has developed from a series of separate activities largely based on transport, warehousing and procurement, where decisions were seen as largely operational or tactical.
As it evolved into a single function, the strategic impact of logistics has become more evident. Customer Satisfaction: Logistics plays an extremely important role in ensuring that customers get the right products at the right place at the right time.
Transportation, warehousing, forecasting, inventory control and production planning all have a direct impact on customer satisfaction. Figure: 1. Concept of Warehouse: We need different types of goods in our day-to-day life. We may buy some of these items in bulk and store them in our house. Similarly, businessmen also need a variety of goods for their use.
Some of them may not be available all the time. But, they need those items throughout the year without any break. Take the example of a sugar factory.
It needs sugarcane as raw material for production of sugar. We know that sugarcane is produced during a particular period of the year. Since, sugar production takes place throughout the year, there is a need to supply sugarcane continuously.
But how is it possible? Here storage of sugarcane in sufficient quantity is required. Again, after production of sugar it requires some time for sale or distribution. Thus, the need for storage arises both for raw material as well as for finished products. Storage involves proper arrangement for preserving goods from the time of their production or purchase till the actual use.
Warehousing is defined as the storage of goods: raw materials, semi-finished goods, or finished goods. This includes a wide spectrum of facilities and locations that provide warehousing. Since, this is a point in the logistics system where goods are held for varying amounts of time, the flow is interrupted or stopped, thereby creating additional costs to the product.
In a macroeconomic sense, warehousing creates time utility for raw materials, industrial goods and finished products. It also increases the utility of goods by broadening their time availability to prospective customers. Warehousing refers to the activities involving storage of goods on a large-scale in a systematic and orderly manner and making them available conveniently when needed.
In other words, warehousing means holding or preserving goods in huge quantities from the time of their purchase or production till their actual use or sale. Warehousing is one of the important auxiliaries to trade. It creates time utility by bridging the time gap between production and consumption of goods. Receiving: This includes the physical unloading of incoming transport, checking, recording of receipts and deciding where the received goods are to be put away in the warehouse.
It can also include such activities as unpacking and repackaging, quality control checks and temporary quarantine storage for goods awaiting clearance by quality control. Inspection: Quality and quantity check of the incoming goods for their required characteristics. Repackaging: Incoming lot may be having non-standard packaging, which may not be stored as it is in the respective location. Put away: Binning and storing the goods in their respective locations including the temporary locations from the receiving docking area.
Storage: Binning the approved material in their respective locations. Picking often involves break bulk operations when goods are received from suppliers say whole pallet quantities, but ordered by customers in less than pallet quantity.
Order picking is important for achieving high levels of customer service; it traditionally also takes a high proportion of the total warehouse staff complement and is expensive. The good design and management of picking systems and operations are consequently vital to effective warehouse performance vii. Sortation: This enables goods coming into a warehouse to be sorted into specific customer orders immediately on arrival.
The goods then go directly to order collation. Packing and shipping: Picked goods as per the customer order are consolidated and packed according to customer order requirement. It is shipped according to customer orders and respective destinations. Cross-docking: Move products directly from receiving to the shipping dock — these products are not at all stored in the specific locations.
Maintaining stock availability for order picking is important for achieving high levels of order fill. The modes may be related to transport vehicles or service operators. The modes of transport may be such as ship, rail, truck, aero plane, car, tram etc.
Thus, multimodal transport system relates to a single trip consisting of combination of modes between which the consignment has to make a transfer.
The transportation of consignment from the origin i. The Contractor manages and co-ordinates the total task and ensures responsibility for safe custody of consignment.
The system also ensures continuous movement of the goods along the best route by the most efficient and cost-effective means. The system also involves simplified documentation. These two terms have very similar meanings, i. Figure display multimodal transport system with several modes of transport. The same is loaded on a truck and reaches airport say B. The consignment will be shifted in to flight at B and reaches airport C.
On arrival at C, it will be transferred in to truck and reaches railway station D. Thereafter, the consignment will be moved to E by train. Having unloaded at E, it reaches the destination F through manual carrying.
The following Figure display multimodal transport with different agencies. At C, the consignment is moved on private truck to D and finally, it travelled through D to E on train. Ensures Smooth and Safe Transport: Multimodal transport operator not only maintains his own communication links, but also coordinates interchange and onward carriage smoothly at different trans- shipment points. Provides Faster Transport Service: Multimodal transport system provides faster transport of goods.
It reduces the disadvantages of distance from markets and the tying-up of capital. Saves Transport Costs: Multimodal transport system helps in the reduction of transport costs as single operator completes the entire job of transhipment of goods.
Further, the system also helps in the reduction of cargo insurance costs. Improves International Price Competitiveness: As multimodal transport system helps in the reduction of transport costs, it will in turn result in reduced export costs and thereby improves international price competitiveness.
Reduces Burden of Documentation and Formalities: In case of traditional transport system i. However, multimodal transport system reduces the burden of multiple documentation and other formalities as single operator completes the entire job of transshipment of goods.
Thus, the consigner deals with only one operator relating to transport, insurance, loss and damage of goods. All this has become essential, so as to gain competitiveness and to fulfil consignees requirements on costs and quality of the transports. Moreover, the intermodal transport system also calls for sharing of information systems.
Thus, intermodal transport system is said to be an integrated system of transport operations, so as to create an efficient and responsive transport service throughout the international transport chain. There exists interrelationship between five parties which affect the transportation system. They are 1. The Shipper Sending party or originating party 2. The Consignee Receiving party or Destination party 3.
The Carrier 4. The Government 5. The Public There exists interrelationship among the above parties based on their role, perspectives and ownership aspects. The role and perspectives of each party can be outlined as follows: Shippers and Consignees: The main objective is to transport the goods from origin to desired destination at least possible cost in a specified time limit.
The transportation service is expected to fulfil the characteristics such as a No loss or damage of goods, b Correct invoicing, c Predictable transit time, d Specified pickup and delivery times and e Accurate transit information.
Carriers: The important objective is to maximise revenue by minimising costs. The carrier tries to charge the maximum possible rate acceptable to shipper or consignee by minimising the operational costs such as labour, fuel and other incidental charges. In order to achieve the said objectives, the carrier requires flexibility in pickup and delivery time, so as to consolidate the individual transport needs into bulk economic transport means.
Government: The government contemplates to have a stable and efficient transport system, so as to achieve rapid economic growth.
The government desires to have an efficient transport system, so as to ensure the availability of various goods at reasonable price. The government affects the transport sector through regulation and promotion. Regulation can be done through controls, while promotion is possible through incentives. Public: Public are more concerned with transport accessibility, efficiency, costs, pollution and safety measures.
Development of transport system to a large extent depends on demand for goods arising from public. Though minimizing transport cost is important goal to consumers, yet trade — off associated with environmental and safety standards also require due consideration. Height of eye 35′. Bollard pull: 41 ton 82, Fuel capacity: 48,gal. Winch: Single drum Almon Johnson with ‘ of 2″ wire. Main engines: 3 Lister Blackstone, total HP Bollard pull: 40 tons. Towing winch: Single drum.
Equipped with tow winch. Although this boat is stacked, the engines are started up periodically , the boat is on shore power and ready for use. Inspect in Louisiana. Capacities: Fuel 58, gal, lube oil 1, gal, water 4, gal. Towing gear: Intercon double drum towing winch, with gypsy head, with 2,’ of 2″ towing wire driven by a single GM diesel engine.
Pullmaster 25 hydraulic bridle winch. Good condition, ready to work. Price to be Developed. Bollard pull: 28 tons direct. Speed 12 knots. Located New Zealand. Generators: 2 Yanmar 5KDL. Fuel capacity: 13, gal. Accommodation for 7 crew in 3 single and 2 double staterooms. Reduction: 2. Installed Driving 4-blade bronze propeller in kort nozzle through new twin disc gears with test hours only. Hydraulic clutch and mairne reverse reduction gear with 5.
Accommodations: Galley. Hauled in to obtain condition for survey. Fuel capacity 38, gallons. Located Northeast USA. Main engines: 2 HP rpm, Bollard pull 25 ton. Speed 11 knots. Range nautical miles. Capacities: Fuel 60, gal, Fresh water 10, gallons. ABS Loadline. Year built Main engine: 2 CAT C Gears: TwinDisc Generators: 2 GM Capacities: Fuel 28,gal, Potable water 6,gal, Lube oil gal. Navigation and Communication equipment. Height of eye 24′. Main engines: 2 CAT Lufkin RS reduction gear 5.
Generators: 2 Detroit diesel , port 75kw at rpm, stb 55kw at rpm. Capacities: Fuel 32, gal, lube gal, waste oil gal, water 5, gal. Located Northeast US. Built , rebuilt , ‘ x 26′ x Manufactured , Drydocked May , current COI and extensive repairs and upgrades, blasting and paint, props, etc. Ready to work. Built , 97’ OA Gear box: 3. Generators: 2 GM Detroits. Econ speed 8 knots, max speed 12 knots. Bollard pull: 28t.
Accommodations: 7 total. Capacities: Fuel ton, potable water 17ton. In Drydock Will have 5-year certificate. Canadian Registry will be removed, not to be used in Eastern Canada. Built , Inland tugs, coastal with good weather. Dims Bollard Pull 24 tons — only towing hook. Generators Baudouin and Sisu. Capacities fuel 40 cbm, FW 6 cbm and Luboil L — foamtank Located Panama. New Build. Delivery approx.
Located Malaysia. Fuel capacity 23, gallons, potable water capacity gallons, lube oil capacity gallons. Main deck: head, 4-person state room, galley with pantry and mess area.
Upper deck utilitized as wheelhouse. Forward main deck full head with shower, 4-person stateroom. Navigation, communication, and safety equipment. Built , rebuilt DWT 82T. Main engines: Akasak diesel, fixed pitch. Towing winch 15T. Bollard pull: 30 ton. Accomodations for 7 crew. Capacities: Fuel 10, gal, oil 10,gal. Fresh water gal. Bollard Pull 28T.
Main engines: 2 CAT s. Generators: 2 60KW John Deere. Capacities: Fuel 52, gal, potable water 13, gal, lube oil 1, gal. Range 4, miles. Dual anchor handling winches.
RB90 double drum towing machine. Built for offshore and ice service. Large open aft deck. Crew up to 8. US built, no flag. Operated by the US Navy. Located Korea. Built , rebuilt , 80′ x 26′, eye-level: 28′, USCG inspected, main engines: 2 Cummins KTAM keel cooled , marine gears: Twin Disc MG , wheels: 70 x 58 – 4 blade, rudders: 2 steering, 2 flanking, accommodations for 8, full galley, 2 heads, electronics: 2 marine radios, marine radar, AIS.
Built , ‘ x 30 x Built , ABS class. Main engines: 3 CAT Generators: 2 45 KW Northern Light. Capacities: Fuel 36, gal, lube oil gal, Potable water 8, gal. Accommodations: 4 berths. Generators: SS Wheels x Fuel capacity: 47, gallons, water capacity: 6, gallons.
Smatco tow machine, ft 1. Capstan, hydraulic push winches, full electronics. Accommodations: sleeps 7, 2 heads. Built ,Norway, MCA class. Dimensions: Class RINA. Bollard pull 15LT. Speed 10 knots. Generators: 2 Cummins S 3. Capacities: Fuel 38, gal, water 16, gal. Accommodations: 10 persons. Navigations, electronics, communications. Built , 60’x22’x7′, 18’x13′ clear deck, GT 86, NT Gear: Twin Disc MG 5. One engine needs repair or replaced. Built , 31m x 7.
Draft: 9’5″. Main engines: 2 new Cat engines with hours each. Generators: 2 new 45 kw generators with hours. Burn rate: 30 to 35 gal per hour with both engines and generators running. Fuel capacity: 24, gals divided up into 2 forward tanks gal each , 2 mid tanks 3, gal each , 2 aft tanks 6, gal.
Potable water: gal, lube oil: gal. Accommodations: Upper deck: 3 bunks for captain and mate, head and shower. Lower deck: Galley, head, shower Running everyday. Draft 7′. Main engines: 2 Cummins QSK Generators: 2 Detroit diesels 40kw. Capacities: fuel 10, gal, potable water 8, gal, lube oil gal, hydraulic oil gal. Electronics, communications, navigation. New COI as of GT 96, NT Main engines: 2 CAT s, Reintjes gears. Generators: 2 Detroit kws. Capacities: Fuel 21, gal, lube gal, potable water 7, gal.
Winch: Seahorse 50 ‘ of 1. Built , Rebuilt , Class Certified by Canadian Coast Guard. Max speed: 8 kts, Bollard pull: 13t. Accommodations: Capacity 8 person, 4 berth in 2 cabins. New bottom paint, clean. Currently in drydock. Located Eastern Canada. Built , Class BKI, Built , 2 available, Reduction: TwinDisc 4. Generator: Isuzu 4LE2 21kw. Fuel capacity: 10, gal. Hydraulic fluid gal. Reduction Gears: Twin Disc 4. Generator: Isuzu 4LE2 21kW. Communications and Electronics.
Located West Coast US. Built , 65′ x 22′ x 8. Built , 74′ x 26′ x 10′, 8′ draft. Eye level 40′. Reduction gears: 2 Twin Disc MG 6. Shafts: 2 6″ solid stainless steel. Aux engines: 2 35kw 4-cylinder Cummins. Tow winch: 1 Marquis Single Drum towing winch 50,lb line pull, ‘ 1. Capacities: Fuel 18,gal, Lube gal, hydraulic gal.
Accommodations: 2 berths lower level each sleeps 2 , master quarter upper level sleeps 2 , 2 restrooms. Built , 65′ x 22′, 6′ draft, 22′ eye level.
Ref Built , Built , rebuilt and , Generators: 2 28kw. Accommodations for Welded Steel construction, square bow and stern. Both ends raked.
Main engines: 2 Cummins diesels HP. Twin disc gears, 4. Electric start. Keel cooled. Generators: 2 30kw Kubota generators powered by 4-cylinder diesel engines.
Capacities: Fuel 7, gal, Potable water 20, gal. Both electrodes allow lithium ions to move in and out of their structures with a process called insertion intercalation or extraction deintercalation , respectively. As the lithium ions “rock” back and forth between the two electrodes, these batteries are also known as “rocking-chair batteries” or “swing batteries” a term given by some European industries. The positive electrode cathode half-reaction in the lithium-doped cobalt oxide substrate is  .
The overall reaction has its limits. Overdischarging supersaturates lithium cobalt oxide , leading to the production of lithium oxide ,  possibly by the following irreversible reaction:. Overcharging up to 5. This chemistry was used in the Li-ion cells developed by Sony in The cell’s energy is equal to the voltage times the charge.
At 3 V, this gives This is a bit more than the heat of combustion of gasoline but does not consider the other materials that go into a lithium battery and that make lithium batteries many times heavier per unit of energy.
The cell voltages given in the Electrochemistry section are larger than the potential at which aqueous solutions will electrolyze. Liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries consist of lithium salts , such as LiPF 6 , LiBF 4 or LiClO 4 in an organic solvent , such as ethylene carbonate , dimethyl carbonate , and diethyl carbonate.
Organic solvents easily decompose on the negative electrodes during charge. When appropriate organic solvents are used as the electrolyte, the solvent decomposes on initial charging and forms a solid layer called the solid electrolyte interphase,  which is electrically insulating, yet provides significant ionic conductivity.
The interphase prevents further decomposition of the electrolyte after the second charge. For example, ethylene carbonate is decomposed at a relatively high voltage, 0. Room-temperature ionic liquids RTILs are another approach to limiting the flammability and volatility of organic electrolytes. Recent advances in battery technology involve using a solid as the electrolyte material. The most promising of these are ceramics. The main benefit of solid electrolytes is that there is no risk of leaks, which is a serious safety issue for batteries with liquid electrolytes.
Ceramic solid electrolytes are highly ordered compounds with crystal structures that usually have ion transport channels. Glassy solid electrolytes are amorphous atomic structures made up of similar elements to ceramic solid electrolytes but have higher conductivities overall due to higher conductivity at grain boundaries. The larger radius of sulfur and its higher ability to be polarized allow higher conductivity of lithium.
This contributes to conductivities of solid electrolytes are nearing parity with their liquid counterparts, with most on the order of 0. The numerous additives that have been tested can be divided into the following three distinct categories: 1 those used for SEI chemistry modifications; 2 those used for enhancing the ion conduction properties; 3 those used for improving the safety of the cell e. During charging, an external electrical power source the charging circuit applies an over-voltage a higher voltage than the battery produces, of the same polarity , forcing a charging current to flow within each cell from the positive to the negative electrode, i.
The lithium ions then migrate from the positive to the negative electrode, where they become embedded in the porous electrode material in a process known as intercalation. The charging procedures for single Li-ion cells, and complete Li-ion batteries, are slightly different:. During the constant current phase, the charger applies a constant current to the battery at a steadily increasing voltage, until the voltage limit per cell is reached. During the balance phase, the charger reduces the charging current or cycles the charging on and off to reduce the average current while the state of charge of individual cells is brought to the same level by a balancing circuit, until the battery is balanced.
Some fast chargers skip this stage. Some chargers accomplish the balance by charging each cell independently. Periodic topping charge about once per hours. Top charging is recommended to be initiated when voltage goes below 4. Failure to follow current and voltage limitations can result in an explosion. Charging temperature limits for Li-ion are stricter than the operating limits. Lithium-ion chemistry performs well at elevated temperatures but prolonged exposure to heat reduces battery life.
During a low-temperature charge, the slight temperature rise above ambient due to the internal cell resistance is beneficial. Although a battery pack  may appear to be charging normally, electroplating of metallic lithium can occur at the negative electrode during a subfreezing charge, and may not be removable even by repeated cycling.
Batteries gradually self-discharge even if not connected and delivering current. Li-ion rechargeable batteries have a self-discharge rate typically stated by manufacturers to be 1. The rate increases with temperature and state of charge.
A study found that for most cycling conditions self-discharge was primarily time-dependent; however, after several months of stand on open circuit or float charge, state-of-charge dependent losses became significant.
The self-discharge rate did not increase monotonically with state-of-charge, but dropped somewhat at intermediate states of charge. The cobalt-based material develops a pseudo tetrahedral structure that allows for two-dimensional lithium-ion diffusion. Limitations include the high cost of the material, and low thermal stability.
Limitations include the tendency for manganese to dissolve into the electrolyte during cycling leading to poor cycling stability for the cathode. As of [update] , LiFePO 4 is a candidate for large-scale production of lithium-ion batteries such as electric vehicle applications due to its low cost, excellent safety, and high cycle durability. Negative electrode materials are traditionally constructed from graphite and other carbon materials, although newer silicon-based materials are being increasingly used see Nanowire battery.
Various materials have been introduced, but their higher voltage reduces low energy density. Another approach used carbon-coated 15 nm thick crystal silicon flakes. The tested half-cell achieved 1. The extensive Review Article by Kasavajjula et al. In particular, Hong Li et al. To improve stability of the lithium anode, several approaches of installing a protective layer have been suggested.
These cracks expose the Si surface to an electrolyte, causing decomposition and the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase SEI on the new Si surface crumpled graphene encapsulated Si nanoparticles. Electrolyte alternatives have also played a significant role, for example the lithium polymer battery.
Polymer electrolytes are promising for minimizing the dendrite formation of lithium. Polymers are supposed to prevent short circuits and maintain conductivity. The ions in the electrolyte diffuse because there are small changes in the electrolyte concentration.
Linear diffusion is only considered here. The change in concentration c , as a function of time t and distance x , is. In this equation, D is the diffusion coefficient for the lithium ion. It has a value of 7. Li-ion cells as distinct from entire batteries are available in various shapes, which can generally be divided into four groups: . Cells with a cylindrical shape are made in a characteristic ” swiss roll ” manner known as a “jelly roll” in the US , which means it is a single long ‘sandwich’ of the positive electrode, separator, negative electrode, and separator rolled into a single spool.
The shape of the jelly roll in cylindrical cells can be approximated by an Archimedean spiral. One advantage of cylindrical cells compared to cells with stacked electrodes is the faster production speed. One disadvantage of cylindrical cells can be a large radial temperature gradient inside the cells developing at high discharge currents. The absence of a case gives pouch cells the highest gravimetric energy density; however, for many practical applications they still require an external means of containment to prevent expansion when their state of charge SOC level is high,  and for general structural stability of the battery pack of which they are part.
Both rigid plastic and pouch-style cells are sometimes referred to as prismatic cells due to their rectangular shapes. Each form factor has characteristic advantages and disadvantages for EV use. Since , several research groups have announced demonstrations of lithium-ion flow batteries that suspend the cathode or anode material in an aqueous or organic solution.
In , Panasonic created the smallest Li-ion cell. It is pin shaped. It has a diameter of 3. A battery also called a battery pack consists of multiple connected lithium-ion cells.
Battery packs for large consumer electronics like laptop computers also contain temperature sensors, voltage regulator circuits, voltage taps , and charge-state monitors. These components minimize safety risks like overheating and short circuiting. The vast majority of commercial Li-ion batteries are used in consumer electronics and electric vehicles.
More niche uses include backup power in telecommunications applications. Because lithium-ion batteries can have a variety of positive and negative electrode materials, the energy density and voltage vary accordingly. The open-circuit voltage is higher than in aqueous batteries such as lead—acid , nickel—metal hydride and nickel-cadmium. Eventually, increasing resistance will leave the battery in a state such that it can no longer support the normal discharge currents requested of it without unacceptable voltage drop or overheating.
Batteries with a lithium iron phosphate positive and graphite negative electrodes have a nominal open-circuit voltage of 3. Lithium nickel manganese cobalt NMC oxide positives with graphite negatives have a 3. The charging procedure is performed at constant voltage with current-limiting circuitry i.
In the past, lithium-ion batteries could not be fast-charged and needed at least two hours to fully charge. Current-generation cells can be fully charged in 45 minutes or less. In researchers demonstrated a small mAh capacity battery charged to 68 percent capacity in two minutes and a 3, mAh battery charged to 48 percent capacity in five minutes.
The device employed heteroatoms bonded to graphite molecules in the anode. Performance of manufactured batteries has improved over time. For example, from to the energy capacity per price of lithium ion batteries improved more than ten-fold, from 0.
Differently sized cells with similar chemistry can also have different energy densities. Life of a lithium-ion battery is typically defined as the number of full charge-discharge cycles to reach a failure threshold in terms of capacity loss or impedance rise. Calendar life is used to represent the whole life cycle of battery involving both the cycle and inactive storage operations. Battery cycle life is affected by many different stress factors including temperature, discharge current, charge current, and state of charge ranges depth of discharge.
To avoid this confusion, researchers sometimes use cumulative discharge  defined as the total amount of charge Ah delivered by the battery during its entire life or equivalent full cycles,  which represents the summation of the partial cycles as fractions of a full charge-discharge cycle.
From this one can calculate the cost per kWh of the energy including the cost of charging. Over their lifespan batteries degrade gradually leading to reduced capacity due to a variety of chemical and mechanical changes to the electrodes. In contrast, the calendar life of LiFePO 4 cells is not affected by high charge states. The layer is composed of electrolyte — carbonate reduction products that serve both as an ionic conductor and electronic insulator.
It forms on both the anode and cathode termed a CEI and influences many performance parameters. Under typical operating conditions, the layer reaches a fixed thickness after the first few charges formation cycles , allowing the device to operate for years.
However, operation outside typical parameters can degrade the electrochemical interfaces via several reactions. Formation of the SEI consumes lithium ions, reducing the overall charge and discharge efficiency of the electrode material. Five common exothermic degradation reactions can occur: . Depending on the electrolyte and additives,  common components of the SEI layer that forms on the anode include a mixture of lithium oxide, lithium fluoride and semicarbonates e.
At elevated temperatures, alkyl carbonates in the electrolyte decompose into insoluble species such as Li 2 CO 3 that increases the film thickness. This increases cell impedance and reduces cycling capacity. The randomness of the metallic lithium embedded in the anode during intercalation results in dendrites formation. Over time the dendrites can accumulate and pierce the separator, causing a short circuit leading to heat, fire or explosion. This process is referred to as thermal runaway.
The copper anode current collector can dissolve into the electrolyte. Electrolyte degradation mechanisms include hydrolysis and thermal decomposition. Under typical conditions, the equilibrium lies far to the left. However the presence of water generates substantial LiF, an insoluble, electrically insulating product.
LiF binds to the anode surface, increasing film thickness. PF 5 reacts with water to form hydrofluoric acid HF and phosphorus oxyfluoride.
Phosphorus oxyfluoride in turn reacts to form additional HF and difluorohydroxy phosphoric acid. HF converts the rigid SEI film into a fragile one.
On the cathode, the carbonate solvent can then diffuse onto the cathode oxide over time, releasing heat and potentially causing thermal runaway. Significant decomposition occurs at higher temperatures. Material loss of the spinel results in capacity fade. As with the anode, excessive SEI formation forms an insulator resulting in capacity fade and uneven current distribution.
Lithium-ion batteries can be a safety hazard since they contain a flammable electrolyte and may become pressurized if they become damaged. A battery cell charged too quickly could cause a short circuit , leading to explosions and fires.
Lithium-ion batteries have a flammable liquid electrolyte. Short-circuiting a battery will cause the cell to overheat and possibly to catch fire. Around , large lithium-ion batteries were introduced in place of other chemistries to power systems on some aircraft; as of January [update] , there had been at least four serious lithium-ion battery fires, or smoke, on the Boeing passenger aircraft, introduced in , which did not cause crashes but had the potential to do so.
If a lithium-ion battery is damaged, crushed, or is subjected to a higher electrical load without having overcharge protection, then problems may arise.
External short circuit can trigger a battery explosion. If overheated or overcharged, Li-ion batteries may suffer thermal runaway and cell rupture. To reduce these risks, many lithium-ion cells and battery packs contain fail-safe circuitry that disconnects the battery when its voltage is outside the safe range of 3—4. Lithium battery packs, whether constructed by a vendor or the end-user, without effective battery management circuits are susceptible to these issues. Poorly designed or implemented battery management circuits also may cause problems; it is difficult to be certain that any particular battery management circuitry is properly implemented.
Lithium-ion cells are susceptible to stress by voltage ranges outside of safe ones between 2. Exceeding this voltage range results in premature aging and in safety risks due to the reactive components in the cells. Other safety features are required [ by whom? These features are required because the negative electrode produces heat during use, while the positive electrode may produce oxygen. However, these additional devices occupy space inside the cells, add points of failure, and may irreversibly disable the cell when activated.
Also, these features can not be applied to all kinds of cells, e. High current cells must not produce excessive heat or oxygen, lest there be a failure, possibly violent. Instead, they must be equipped with internal thermal fuses which act before the anode and cathode reach their thermal limits.
Replacing the lithium cobalt oxide positive electrode material in lithium-ion batteries with a lithium metal phosphate such as lithium iron phosphate LFP improves cycle counts, shelf life and safety, but lowers capacity. As of , these ‘safer’ lithium-ion batteries were mainly used in electric cars and other large-capacity battery applications, where safety is critical.
IATA estimates that over a billion lithium and lithium-ion cells are flown each year. Extraction of lithium, nickel, and cobalt, manufacture of solvents, and mining byproducts present significant environmental and health hazards. Cobalt for Li-ion batteries is largely mined in the Congo see also Mining industry of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Manufacturing a kg of Li-ion battery takes about 67 megajoule MJ of energy.
Since Li-ion batteries contain less toxic metals than other types of batteries which may contain lead or cadmium,  they are generally categorized as non-hazardous waste. Li-ion battery elements including iron, copper, nickel and cobalt are considered safe for incinerators and landfills. Lithium is less expensive than other metals used and is rarely recycled,  but recycling could prevent a future shortage.
Accumulation of battery waste presents technical challenges and health hazards. Re-use of the battery is preferred over complete recycling as there is less embodied energy in the process.
As these batteries are a lot more reactive than classical vehicle waste like tire rubber, there are significant risks to stockpiling used batteries. The pyrometallurgical method uses a high-temperature furnace to reduce the components of the metal oxides in the battery to an alloy of Co, Cu, Fe, and Ni.
This is the most common and commercially established method of recycling and can be combined with other similar batteries to increase smelting efficiency and improve thermodynamics. The metal current collectors aid the smelting process, allowing whole cells or modules to be melted at once.
At high temperatures, the polymers used to hold the battery cells together burn off and the metal alloy can be separated through a hydrometallurgical process into its separate components. The slag can be further refined or used in the cement industry.
The process is relatively risk-free and the exothermic reaction from polymer combustion reduces the required input energy. However, in the process, the plastics, electrolytes , and lithium salts will be lost. This method involves the use of aqueous solutions to remove the desired metals from the cathode. The most common reagent is sulfuric acid.
Once leached , the metals can be extracted through precipitation reactions controlled by changing the pH level of the solution. Cobalt, the most expensive metal, can then be recovered in the form of sulfate, oxalate, hydroxide, or carbonate.
In these procedures, concentrations of the various leached metals are premeasured to match the target cathode and then the cathodes are directly synthesized. The main issues with this method, however, is that a large volume of solvent is required and the high cost of neutralization.
Although it’s easy to shred up the battery, mixing the cathode and anode at the beginning complicates the process, so they will also need to be separated. Unfortunately, the current design of batteries makes the process extremely complex and it is difficult to separate the metals in a closed-loop battery system.
Shredding and dissolving may occur at different locations.